Abstract estimation form

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Abstract estimation form is made only for the extraction information from abstract of literature source, but not for the estimation of epidemiologic parameters (incidence, prevalence, etc) itself.

Please read below some explanations on terms and find examples of abstract estimation.

Please note that all questions should be answered in the Abstract estimation form!. If the answer is not possible due to absence of data please use "not known" or "not reported" option. The only exclusion from this rule is the number of studied persons - if it is absent or not clear from the abstract, leave this field blank.

Please note if you have some difficulties with some abstract estimation, or couldn't classify if according to the Abstract estimation form, it is possible to skip this abstract and to estimate the next abstract. In order to do this you should to click on the right green arrow at the top of abstract estimation page (on the information panel).

If you made an abstract estimation and would like to return to it for review or correct, you could do it in two ways:

  • click on the left green arrow at the top of abstract estimation page (on the information panel) - this is available only when you have just estimated the abstract and have just transfered to another;
  • use "View your statistics" from the main menu (this option is available only to the registered user with advanced accesss rights ), then find the abstract you would like to correct, and select "Modify previously done abstract estimation" option.


Country of description

Please select country where the studied population lived.

Please consider while the country could't be mentioned directly in the abstract, in many cases it is clear from authors' affilation. Please note that for some articles authors from one country describes population from another country (like WHO or US authors describe data from developing world), and in this case you should classify the country of studied population, not the authors' affilation.

When you start typing the list of all countries is filtered and you will see only countries which names are like what you are typing. Please select from this list the appropriate country. Please note that initially not all countries are visible in the drop-down list, and it is neccessary to insert the beginning of the country name manually, then the full list will be filtered.

If you will not find the country name in the list, put your custom description in the field.

If data source describes populations in several countries, use text box for listing of all countries separated by comma.

If you could not identify country to which studied population belongs, put "not known".


phrase in abstractabstract estimation form
45000 patients from Argentina, Chilie and Equador were included in analysis"Argentina, Chilie, Equador"
country is not named directly in the abstract, but it was mentioned the study was a part of Okinawa Dialysis StudyJapan

Please pay attention that this field is not intended to description of the authors' country of origin.

Article language

Please select the data source language from the drop-down list.

If you will not find the language name in the list, put your custom description in the field.

If the data source language is not known, or you have some doubts on this issue, choose "Unknown" from the drop-down list.

Number of persons/patients

Please extract the total screened population size from the abstract. Please don't use any separators for numbers (such as comma or space)

If population size described with mentioning any subgroups (like "we studied 372 patients with DM type 1 and 1,761 patients with DM type 2"), use only total population size (2133 patients for this example).

If there was no data on population size, leave the field empty.

phrase in abstractabstract estimation form
Analyses were performed using data from a staff and network model HMO in the southwestern United States with more than 150,000 members per year during 1994 to 1997.150000
The study included 4875 patients (females 63.8%) with a mean (SD) duration ...4875

Article type

Please choose article type from the available list.

Please mention than for the review article without abstract for many parameters in Abstract estimation form (such as study population coverage, sampling strategy, population sex, age, urbanicity, etc) it is neccessary to choose "not known".

If review article concerns both developed and developing world, please choose "review article with data from developing world".

phrase in abstractabstract estimation form
Chronic renal disease in Polynesians in New Zealandreview article with data from developed world
any article describing results of renal replacement therapy regisrtyregistry report

Study population coverage

phrase in abstractabstract estimation form
A cross-sectional, multicenter, hospital-based diabetic registry was carried out in diabetes clinics of 11 tertiary centers in Thailand. sub-national
A retrospective analysis was undertaken of clinical records of 219 DM patients with long-duration DM (over 10 years) attending a diabetes clinic in Durban.single center experience
Six medical centres (including two public hospital diabetes centres) in Hong Kong"sub-national" (due to the size of Hong Kong)
Based on data collected from 2295 caucasian male patients from two geographical regions, the Carolinas (both North and South) and the Rockies (including Colorado, Idaho, Nevada, Montana, Utah and Wyoming)...sub-national
The incidence of retinal, renal and cardiovascular complications was documented in this follow-up study of 10 of the 14 original centres of the WHO Multinational Study of Vascular Disease in Diabetesmulti-national

Study sampling strategy

Please note if several sampling strategies were applied for the study, choose in the abstract estimation form the most bias-free strategy, and put other details in comments (see table).

phrase in abstractabstract estimation form
A retrospective analysis was undertaken of clinical records of 219 DM patients with long-duration DM (over 10 years) attending a diabetes clinic in Durban.Convinient sampling (not random/systematic sampling)
Type 2 diabetic subjects, inclusive of known diabetic subjects, and randomly selected newly diagnosed diabetic subjects were selected"Any type of random sampling", with note in comments "some part of studied population was non-rabdomly selected"
The subjects were randomly identified from 30 counties of Iran.Any type of random sampling

Details on sampling population

Please provide as detailed description of studied population as possible.

Please note if you checked "biopsy study", it is not necessary to check also "Sampling of only CKD patients".

Please note that "Healthy population" could be applied if study examines the common population, as well for the studies with screening for benign prostatic hypertrophy in old men population.

Please use the item "other" with subsequent detalization only if it is absolutelly mpossible to classify abstract with previous items (Healthy population, Sampling only patients with specific disease, etc).

phrase in abstractabstract estimation form
A cross-sectional, multicenter, hospital-based diabetic registry was carried out in diabetes clinics of 11 tertiary centers in Thailand.choose
  • Sampling of persons admitted to the secondary/tertiary care hospital
  • Sampling only patients with specific disease; with detais in textbox "diabetic nephropathy"
Chronic renal disease in Polynesians in New Zealand choose
  • Sampling of selected specific population; with detalization "Polynesians"
registry report or article describing any type of renal replacement therapySampling of only CKD patients
All patient visits to urologists that resulted in a diagnosis of first-episode upper urinary tract stones in 2005 were enumerated irrespective of admission and treatment.Sampling of selected specific population, with detalization "patients admitted to the urologists"
Ten year follow-up of a representative population-based cohort comprised 8913 randomly selected, apparently healthy participants."Healthy population"
Case registers of stone patients were maintained in the hospitals for 2 years; they included out-patients and in-patients.select "Sampling only patients with specific disease", with detalization "urolithiasis"
An analysis of 1000 consecutive, adequate renal biopsies from patients of the University Hospital Kuala Lumpur revealed ...choose only "biopsy study"

CKD stages / patients reported in the study

Please note this question should be answered even for data sources describing benign prostatic hypertrophy without mentioning any CKD data. In this case choose "not known" (see examples).

Please note in case of incident ESRD population study, choose both "incident ESRD population" and type of RRT described in the article.

For articles describing RRT registry data, choose all RRT modalities mentioned in the article.

phrase in abstractabstract estimation form
The prevalence of DN was 42.9% (microalbuminuria 19.7% and overt nephropathy 23.2%). There were 373 (7.7%) patients with renal insufficiency and 24 (0.47%) with end-stage renal disease.
To describe lower urinary tract symptoms, prostate volume and peak urinary flow rate, and investigate the relationships among urological variables in a community sample of Norwegian men.not known
Diabetic nephropathy was defined as the geometric mean of two consecutive urinary albumin values > 200 mg/lCKD in total (without information on stages)
Patients were classified according to their urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) as having normoalbuminuria (ACR<30 mg/g creatinine), microalbuminuria (ACR=30 to <300 mg/g creatinine), or macroalbuminuria (ACR > or =300 mg/g creatinine)CKD with detalization other than stages 1-5
The DOC study examined a historical cohort of incident patients starting dialysis therapy (hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis) between 1 January 2001 and 1 December 2003 and followed until 1 December 2005choose
  • incident ESRD population
  • hemodialysis patients
  • peritoneal dialysis patients
The prevalence of diabetes mellitus among patients treated for end-stage renal failure by dialysis in France was studiedchoose
  • hemodialysis patients
  • peritoneal dialysis patients

Study period

Please describe the study period start and end if they are reported. If study duration was less than one year, use the same number for start and end periods.

If study period directly not reported, check the "not reported" box.

phrase in abstractabstract estimation form
The data were as on 31st December 1996 (in registry report)start period: 1996, end period: 1996

Studied population age

Please select ahe range or age group where available. Children are difined as persons younger 18 years old.

If only lower age range was reported (like "for 45 and older"), put 100 as a maximum age range (see also examples).

phrase in abstractabstract estimation form
A cross-sectional study of 611 men, aged 55-70 years, who underwent a clinical urological examinationcheck "only adults", put Age range: min 55, max 70
To examine diabetic nephropathy prevalence, incidence, and mortality from 1993 to 2001 among fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries > or = 67 years of age.choose "only adults", put Age range: min 67, max 100

Studied population sex

Please estimate from the abstract whether population consists from males, females, or both.

If there was no mention about sex, and the study is not restricted to the sex-specific disease (like benogn prostatic hypertrophy), select "not reported".

Studied population urbanicity

Please estimate from the abstract whether population consists from city, rural, or mixed population.

Study design

Please note you should define the study design even if it is not named directly in the abstract.

If it is not clear whether the cohort study was prospective or retrospective, please select "retrospective cohort study".

phrase in abstractabstract estimation form
We performed a prospective analysis of the incidence of coronary heart disease, stroke and cardiovascular disease in all Type 1 subjects in the Finnish Type I diabetes mellitus register"prospective cohort study" should be chosen (not "registry report")
We studied 204 biopsy-diagnosed IgAN patients, who were followed for an average of 6.1 years."retrospective cohort study"

Epidemiological parameters in abstract

Please desribe as many epidemiological paramenters of interest as reported in the article.

Please note that first three items (incidence, prevalence and outcome) refer only to the disease of primary interest (for example, chronic glomerulonephritis or benign prostatic hypertrophy). In the case of description in the article the incidence of cardiovascular disease in type 1 diabetic subjects with and without diabetic nephropathy only "outcome" with detalization "cardiovascular events rate" should be selected, but not the "incidence" (because in this particular case there is no description of diabetic nephropathy incidence, but only the incidence of CV events - that is an outcome for CKD).

Use checkboxes "potentially reported" for incidence, prevalence or outcome if the abstract does not contain direct description of these epidemiological paramenters, but their usage are strongly suggested by the title or abstract (see examples).

Please note while the patient survival and mortality are very similar parameters, for the purposes of futher literature selection for the full-text estimation it is necessary to distinguish between these parameters, and select only those mentioned in the abstract. The same is true for the renal survival and ESRD rate.

In the case when it is unclear whether renal survival or ESRD rate was estimated in the article, select the checkbox "renal survival". (see examples).

phrase in abstractabstract estimation form
Prediction of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and mortality by plasma CTGF was analyzed in conjunction with conventional risk factors.choose
  • outcome
    • patient mortality
    • ESRD rate
title of the article "Natural history of diabetic nephropathy in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus", with no abstract provided choose
  • outcome, check 'potentially reported'
title "IgA nephropathy in children", with no abstract providedchoose
  • incidence, check 'potentially reported'
  • prevalence, check 'potentially reported'
  • outcome, check 'potentially reported'
We accounted for the prevalence of the following diabetes complications: angina, myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident, lower extremity amputation, peripheral vascular disease, registered blindness, end-stage renal failurechoose
  • prevalence
  • prevalence or incidence of diabetes complications other then nephropathy
"20% patients developed renal insufficiency" (with no other mentioning renal outcome in the abstract)"renal survival"

Nephrological (urological) abstract topics

Please select from the list appropriate abstract topic(s).

Please choose "chronic glomerulonephritis" for different types of glomerulonephritis (IgA nephropathy, FSGS, MPGN, etc), while put more details in the "Details on sampling population" section.

phrase in abstractabstract estimation form
title "Chronic renal disease in Polynesians in New Zealand", with no abstractonly CKD in total without specifying nosology
Therefore, we evaluated the clinical manifestations and renal prognosis in 276 Japanese patients with histologically proven IgA nephropathychronic glomerulonephritis
The prevalence of complications and the clinical and biochemical parameters were evaluated for type 1 and type 2 diabetes and for each ethnic group. choose
  • diabetic nephropathy in type 1 DM
  • diabetic nephropathy in type 2 DM

Disease ascertainment was estimated based on

Please select all appropriate checkboxes for describing disease ascertainment in the study.

For BPH epidemiology studies, if American Urological Association symptom score or International Prostate Symptom Score was used for the disease ascertainment, select the checkbox "Patient interview" (see examples).

For ESRD registries reports, please choose "not known".

phrase in abstractabstract estimation form
DN was defined as the presence of at least two out of three of these symptoms; positive microalbuminuria, positive dipstick proteinuria or creatinine levels equal to or greater than 2 mg/dlselect checkboxes:
  • Microalbuminuria
  • Proteinuria
  • Serum creatinine; with SCr treshold 176.8 µmol/L
Using information derived from intravenous pyelography, ultrasonography, renal biopsies and autopsies, it was found that select checkboxes:
  • Imaging abnormalities
  • Kidney biopsy
  • Autopsy
The parameters assessed were PSA level, American Urological Association (AUA) symptom score, uroflowmetry, and digital rectal examination (DRE) of the prostateselect checkboxes:
  • Prostate-specific antigen determination
  • Patient interview
  • Urinary flow rate measurement
  • Prostate rectal examination
patients on dialysis or with kidney graftend-stage renal disease

Please note that Serum creatinine treshold have to be filled in µmol/L. In order to obtain creatinine from mg/dl multiply the value for 88.4 (i.e. 2 mg/dl * 88.4 = 176.8 µmol/L).

Does study include follow-up

Please note that for the retrospective studies without subsequent prospective follow-up period in the section "Does study include follow-up" the option "no" should be chosen.

Do risk factors for CKD in studied population are reported

phrase in abstractabstract estimation form
By multivariate analysis, factors associated with DN were age, duration of diabetes, male sex, smoking, blood pressure, HbA1c, dyslipidemia and presence of diabetic retinopathy. Prevalence of ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease in patients with DN was 11.5% and 6.6% respectively. yes

Subjective estimation of reviewer on abstract quality

Please provide your subjective estimation of the abstract and study quality on the scale from 1 (lowest) to 5 (highest).

Comments on study quality

Provide any additional comments or classification not used in formal abstract estimation form.

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