CKD-AKI: Chronic kidney disease and acute kidney injury epidemiology
Horizon 2020 project
Burden of kidney disease
Kidney diseases are widespread and increasing non-communicable diseases with high burden, but their epidemiology is insufficiently evaluated. Kidney diseases are defined as chronic kidney disease (CKD) or acute kidney injury (AKI) depending on their duration. CKD is a set of chronic conditions of different etiology that affects about 10-15% of general adult population as shown in the high-quality screening programs performed in different world regions. CKD has a profound impact on public health due to premature mortality, renal and cardiovascular complications. Renal complications with development of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) require costly therapy with dialysis or transplantation and pose substantial economic burden, with the worldwide number of such patients is estimated at more than 1.4 million, and annual growth rate of 8%. Moreover, even from the early CKD stages the rates of cardiovascular complications (myocardial infarction, stroke, peripheral artery thrombosis, heart failure) are elevated independently of other risk factors, increasing more than 100-fold in ESRD.
AKI is characterized by the rapid loss of kidney function, and occurs in different settings, with higher rates among hospitalized or critically ill patients. AKI incidence varies from 295 to more than 5,000 cases per million population per year depending to its severity defined whether dialysis treatment is required or not. Prevention and delivery of optimal care for AKI could save about 12,000 lives and £150m in England each year, and similar projections could be expected for all countries in EU and other world regions. Of note, natural history of AKI can be related to the development of CKD and CVD, making these three diseases strictly interrelated.

Objectives and overview of the action
The current project are intended to assess the most recent data about CKD and AKI, and perform modeling with innovative computational methods.

Thus, the specific aims of the project are:
  • To collect available evidence about CKD and AKI epidemiology;
  • To model CKD and AKI epidemiologic estimates on the global, regional, and country levels.

Major deliverables
Disparities in Chronic Kidney Disease Prevalence among Males and Females in 195 Countries: Analysis of the Global Burden of Disease 2016 Study
DOI: 10.1159/000489897

In 2016, the global number of individuals with impaired kidney function (IKF) reached 752.7 million, including 417.0 million females and 335.7 million males. The most prevalent form of IKF in both groups was albuminuria with preserved glomerular filtration rate. Geospatial analysis shows a very heterogeneous distribution of the male:female ratio for all IKF conditions, with the most prominent contrast found in kidney transplant patients. The median male:female ratio varies substantially according to GDP PPP quintiles; however, countries with different economic states could have similar male:female ratios. A strong correlation of GDP PPP with dialysis-to-transplant ratio was found ...
Series of articles highlighting the results of the Global Burden of Disease 2016 Study

Global, regional, and national under-5 mortality, adult mortality, age-specific mortality, and life expectancy, 1970-2016 >>>

Global, regional, and national age-sex specific mortality for 264 causes of death, 1980-2016 >>>

Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 328 diseases and injuries for 195 countries, 1990-2016 >>>

Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 333 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2016 >>>

Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990-2016 >>>

Measuring progress and projecting attainment on the basis of past trends of the health-related Sustainable Development Goals in 188 countries >>>

Measuring performance on the Healthcare Access and Quality Index for 195 countries and territories and selected subnational locations: a systematic analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016
DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)30994-2

Despite substantial gains since 2000, many low-SDI and middle-SDI countries face considerable challenges unless heightened policy action and investments focus on advancing access to and quality of health care across key health services, especially non-communicable diseases. Stagnating or minimal improvements experienced by several low-middle to high-middle SDI countries could reflect the complexities of re-orienting both primary and secondary health-care services beyond the more limited foci of the Millennium Development Goals. Alongside initiatives to strengthen public health programmes, the pursuit of universal health coverage hinges upon improving both access and quality worldwide, and thus requires adopting a more comprehensive view - and subsequent provision - of quality health care for all populations.

This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 703226. The material presented and views expressed here are the responsibility of the author(s) only. The EU Commission takes no responsibility for any use made of the information set out.